Thursday, August 27, 2020

Gonzales Family Murder- Research Paper free essay sample

Portray the elements that may have prompted the criminal conduct Prior to the offenses being perpetrated, Sef Gonzales was taking law subjects in A Bachelor of Art course at Macquarie University. He was battling in these courses as he missed sitting for some tests and finishing assignments. Once Sef’s guardians (Teddy and Mary) got some answers concerning Sef’s poor test exhibitions, they cautioned Sef that in the event that he didn’t improve in the following semester his vehicle, which he was exceptionally appended as well, would be taken off him. Sef’s guardians likewise possessed property in both the Philippines and Australia, and assessed worth of $1. million, the subsequent will implied that on the off chance that he was the main outstanding kid he would have responsibility for parent’s property, on the off chance that he was not engaged with the homicides of his family. The motivating force of incredible monetary profit could of lead to the cr iminal conduct that occurred on the tenth of July 2001. We will compose a custom exposition test on Gonzales Family Murder-Research Paper or then again any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page The memorable day on the tenth of July 2001 was not in actuality a spontaneous choice, before the date Sef Gonzales activities occurred. He recently attempted to harm his mom (Mary Gonzales) with certain plant species he had requested on the web (first July 2001). She was taken to clinic, and the general outcome was an awful instance of food contamination. This rate can show the homicide of his relatives were planned, as he recently had the aim to murder. Blueprint the revealing and examination of the wrongdoing 11 months after the indictable offense was submitted, Sef Gonzales was captured by Strike Force Tawas, after they increased a court order of his unit. He was then taken to Chatswood police headquarters where he was accused of the three tallies of homicide. Took eleven months before they captured him, in light of the difficult examination process which criminologists (Detective Sergeant Bob Gibbsâ amp; Detective Inspector Geoff Leonard) needed to suffer to represent the different plausible excuses Sef Gonzales had advanced, in endeavor to demonstrate his innocence as a suspect. Plausible excuses included being with a whore at the hour of the homicides, just as attempting to connect the wrongdoing to a racial assault, purpose behind why he shower painted on a divider â€Å"f*ck off Asians KKK†. Clarify the job of the courts After Mr. Gonzales was captured he was taken to Hornsby nearby court for a conference, where Sef Gonzales didn't matter for bail, anyway he quickly needed to enter three requests of not blameworthy for the homicides of his mom, father and sister. After fourteen days he needed to go to another court hearing (at Hornsby nearby court) to decide if there was sufficient proof advanced by police to send Sef Gonzales to a criminal preliminary including a jury. Judge Five days after the subsequent hearing had started, Deborah Sweeney (justice) found for the police proof. In June 2007 Gonzales was conceded endorsement to advance in light of the fact that the explanations that the police took on the night might be unacceptable, on the grounds that he was not forewarned (I. e. anything you state or do can be utilized against you as proof), the intrigue was tossed out as there had been no unnatural birth cycle of equity. The sentence remains. Framework the job of legitimate portrayal For the situation Regina v Gonzales lawful portrayal was available all through the whole preliminary. Gatherings Regina-Government Sef Gonzales-Defendant Judge-James J Role of the adjudicator is to ensure that the correct methodology are followed and she or he settles on choices pretty much all inquiries of what the law is corresponding to the specific case. When jury settle on their consistent choice, the appointed authority decides the sentence. Resistance advodate Winston Terracini Mr Terracini work is to introduce the case for the respondent and test the prosecution’s proof to show that there isn't sufficient proof in the prosecution’s case to see the litigant as liable. Investigator Mark Tedeschi His responsibility is to introduce the case towards the jury, with utilization of proof to attempt to demonstrate the litigant blameworthy. A police examiner will generally introduce the arraignment case which is known as the crown investigator, which is the thing that happened during this case. Jury-was comprised of 6 men and 6 lady, their job is thought of a choice dependent on the proof gave for the situation, and have a sound psyche that past sensible uncertainty the litigant committed the follows up based on the proof gave. Blameworthy/not liable must be a lion's share decision. Recognize the supplication He argued not-blameworthy which brought about the preliminary being built up, he kept up his blamelessness even once the preliminary was finished, all the proof was advanced and the liable decision had been made alongside the condemning. He said he would not concede to offenses which he had not submitted so as to satisfy others. In the event that he had conceded and indicated regret, he could have been given a lighter sentence. Examine the variables that influence the condemning choice * Age (he was just 20 when the killings were submitted), at present enlisted n college he was youthful and still had a great deal of life to live, additionally being taken a crack at college which can demonstrate he was very keen and could become and significant Australian later on * His disobedient mentality of being blamelessness, 3 years after the indictable offense was submitted, having no acknowledgment or duty of the homicides. This mentality is risky as he really accep ts his guiltless and being sans let could influence the network and the assurance that each individual merits while living in Australia. The appalling of the homicides and the enduring the casualties would have been gotten through. Judge can consider and utilize his carefulness about the condemning and can give conclusion to the expired realizing that the guilty party will be bolted up for an extremely lengthy timespan. Clarify the punishment given After the liable decision was conveyed by the jury, James J condemned Sef Gonzales to three concurrent* life sentences of detainment, without the chance of parole. Which means he will remain in jail for his residual life, with no legitimate method of getting out. Simultaneous  when a criminal respondent is indicted for at least two wrongdoings, an appointed authority sentences him to a specific timeframe for every wrongdoing, the adjudicator will decide that the sentences may all be served simultaneously, with the longest period controlling. Break down the degree to which the law adjusts the privileges of casualties and guilty parties With the abhorrent occasions that unfolded, I think it’s just essential for Sef Gonzales to be bolted up forever. The wrongdoing that he focused on his own relatives was disreputable, and was arranged as one of the most terrible killings been put to preliminary. For the victim’s companions I accept equity has been served. Sef Gonzales cut off three lives and being bolted up for an amazing remainder will give conclusion to the partners of the three. Other Gonzales’ will have their own assessment on whether the correct decision was given alongside the sentence. Having one of their own’commit these activities; it would be an extremely horrendous encounter for different individuals legitimately identified with Sef. The people group will be more secure with these sorts of individuals off the road. Sef’s demeanor to the entire trial was unordinary, anyway he didn't experience the ill effects of any psychological requests, and his conviction that he was blameless would be extremely difficult to accept, except if something in the mind wasn’t working accurately. From a pariah glancing in, everything was done decently and lawfully, from the capture to the condemning. I for one accept that equity has been served to the people in question, the harshest condemned has been given to Mr. Gonzales and is merited. He ended the lives of three individuals, not just individuals ut family. I accept on the off chance that you remove someone’s life from them, yours has the right to be removed as well. Despite the fact that we no longer have capital punishment, life in jail is legitimate. CASE SUMMARY On July 10 2001 Sef Gonzales killed his sister Clodine 18; mother Mary Loiva Josephine 43, and his dad Teddy 46, in their North Ryde home. He guaranteed that he had found the bo dies when he showed up home, and that supremacist spray painting was showered on the divider. Anyway as more proof was uncovered, Sef rose as an imaginable suspect. It was uncovered that Sef endeavored to conceal his scholarly disappointment by misrepresenting results, and when his folks discovered they took steps to pull back specific benefits, for example, the utilization of his vehicle. Simultaneously, he had contended with his mom over a sweetheart she had objected to. These, alongside the craving to acquire the familys fortune, were built up as solid intentions in Gonzales slaughtering his folks and sister. Following a multi month examination, Sef Gonzales was captured and in the end condemned to three terms of life detainment. Reference index Gonzales conceded advance. (n. d. ). Recovered from http://www. smh. com. au/news/national/gonzales-wins-claim/2007/06/05/1180809521647. html. Gonzales pawned adornments, court told. (n. d. ). Recovered from http://www. smh. com. au/articles/2004/05/05/1083635209328. html. http://datasearch2. uts. edu. au/science/news-occasions/occasions documented detail. cfm? ItemId=21782. (n. d. ). http://lawful word reference. thefreedictionary. com/concurrent+sentence. (n. d. ). http://murderpedia. organization/male. G/g/gonzales-sef. htm. (n. d. ). http://www. equity. qld. gov. au/__data/resources/pdf_file/0004/62545/vaq-control for-casualties of-wrongdoing segment 7. pdf. (n. . ). http://www. lawhandbook. sa. gov. au/ch11s03s06s01. php. (n. d. ). http://www. smh. com. au/articles/2003/08/28/1062050611564. html? from=storyrhs. (n. d. ). http://www. theage. com. au/articles/2002/06/13/1023864324229. html. (n. d. ). Sef Gonzales. (n. d. ). Recovered from http://en. wikipedia. organization/wiki/Sef

Saturday, August 22, 2020

How Meaning of Words Change Throughout the Generations Research Paper

How Meaning of Words Change Throughout the Generations - Research Paper Example That shows that it is regular for a person from outside a hover to get lost while taking part in a conversation from individuals who have a place with similar circles. Be that as it may, some slang words utilization remains nearly the equivalent with just procuring development regarding use across different societies and gathering settings. The use of the words may now and again become regular where pretty much every gathering utilizes the word at a specific period and afterward the word gets supplanted by another all the more engaging word. A few slangs may, be that as it may, keep up a similar importance while contrasted and the word reference meaning in spite of the fact that changes may result after some time. The paper looks at the use and significance of the word cool as per the researcher’s point of view and how the circle that the specialist has a place with utilizes the word in communicating conclusions or responses. As an understudy, my hover contains understudies in a couple of groupings from the scholarly stage and the extra-curricular stage. As an understudy, associations are regular with bunch individuals and different colleagues as the greater part of the day time hours are gone through along with different understudies. Then again, as a footballer for the school group, connections with other colleagues are obvious during preparing and game time. The word cool as utilized in the two gathering settings is regularly utilized in the two gathering settings for the most part to imply something great. The distinction between the significance of the word is depicted while analyzing the outcome that I credited to the word cool by these two gatherings. Consider for instance a circumstance where after presenting a gathering portrayal in the class, our examination bunch scored 80%, despite the fact that the presentation was the fifth while contrasted with different gatherings. From refering to the pre sentation as cool, the gathering head and the gathering individuals meant that despite the fact that the exhibition was not incredible, it was acceptable.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Blog Archive Monday Morning Essay Tip Remember Parallel Construction

Blog Archive Monday Morning Essay Tip Remember Parallel Construction Longer and more complex sentences often require parallel construction. Simply put, parallel construction ensures that any given longer sentence has a standard rhythm or construction. With parallel construction, each pronoun corresponds with another pronoun, each verb corresponds with another verb, each adjective matches with a corresponding adjective and so on. Parallel construction can certainly be found in shorter sentences as well, and to great effect. Consider the example of Hamlet’s words “To be or not to be,” which are some of the most famous in the English language. Shakespeare wrote this short sentence in perfect parallel form; “to be” is matched perfectly with its corresponding negative “not to be” and is separated only by the necessary word “or.” Another short example of parallel construction from history is “I came, I saw, I conquered.” With these words, Julius Caesar spoke in perfect parallel constructionâ€"the grammatical form is a pronoun (the word “I”) followed by a verb in the past tense (“came,” “saw,” “conquered”). If we were to change that second famous phrase just a touch, the amazing quality it now has would be lost, and the phrase would become unremarkable. For example, if Caesar had said, “I came, I saw, and I became the conqueror,” no one would be quoting him today (because the rhythm would be destroyedâ€"it would be verb, verb, verb phrase). Keep this rule in mind for everything that you write, especially for longer sentences. Some final examples: Bad:  There are three key reasons for this success: understanding our client, trying harder than our competition and teamwork. Good:  There are three key reasons for this success: understanding our client, trying harder than our competition and working as a team. (In this example, gerunds [the words ending in “ing”] parallel each other, unlike in the previous, bad example.) Bad:  We are in the forestry business. We sell wood to hardware stores and paper to stationery stores. Good:  We are in the forestry business. We sell wood and paper. Share ThisTweet Monday Morning Essay Tips

Monday, May 25, 2020

Theories of Motivation - 1011 Words

Theories of Motivation Arousal: * A person’s state of alertness and mental and physical activation. Arousal Theory: * People are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal. * The optimal level is different for all of us. Stimulus Motives: * Motives that cause us to increase stimulation. * Appear to be unlearned, * Curiosity, exploration, and play that occur when your arousal is too low. Yerkes-Dodson Law Yerkes-Dodson Law: * Principle that performance on a task is best when arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task: * Higher arousal for simple tasks. * Moderate arousal level for moderate tasks. * Low arousal for difficult tasks. Sensory Deprivation: * A†¦show more content†¦ATTRIBUTIONS * Situational attributions: the person attributes behaviour to some external cause or factor operating with the situation. * Disposal attributions: the person attributes the behaviour to some internal cause or personal trait. * Actor-observer bias: the tendency to attribute our own shortcomings primarily to situational factors and those of others to internal or dispositional factors. FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR * Our overemphasis on internal factors and underestimation of external factors when we explain other people’s behaviour. SELF-SERVING BIAS We attribute our successes to dispositional causes and failures to situational causes FACTORS INFLUENCING ATTRACTION * Proximity or geographic closeness * Mere-exposure effect * Reciprocity or reciprocal liking * Physical attractiveness * Matching hypothesis * Similarity SOCIAL INFLUENCE * Conformity: * Changing one’s behaviour or attitude in order to be consistent with the norms of a group or the expectations of others * Solomon asch study * Norms: * Attitudes and standards of behaviour expected of members of a group. * Obedience: * Following orders * Stanley milgram study COMPLIANCE * Foot-in-the-door technique: first make a small request andShow MoreRelatedTheories Of Motivation And Motivation Theories1493 Words   |  6 Pagesextent, needs of theories of motivation are still relevant to contemporary management practice. Theories of motivation are important as it helps managers to understand their employees’ needs of motivations, and to motivate their employees to perform and excel better. There are several motivation theories; this essay will briefly explain six major theories of motivation and discuss three of the theories in more detail. This essay will also explain the needs theories of motivation, and will focus onRead MoreMotivation Theory : Motivation And Motivation846 Words   |  4 PagesProfessor Jones Psychology April 28 2016 Motivation Theories Having motivation to do something is very important. Motivation plays a huge roll in everyone’s life, even If someone has very little motivation. There are several types of motivation such as Instinct and drive motivation. These two motivations are quite similar, but different at the same time. I will compare and contrast both of these types of motivation and what I think about them. These motivations are very important to your life and canRead MoreMotivation Theories Of Motivation And Motivation Essay1020 Words   |  5 Pages Overview of Presentation What is motivation? Cognitive theories of Motivation Forms of Motivation Motivation Theories Profile of Motivational Problems How to Motivate Students What is Motivation? Many different theorists have tried to define what is meant by motiviation. Urdan and Schoenfelder (2006) defined Motivation as follows: â€Å"Motivation is a complex part of human psychology and behavior that influences how individuals choose to invest their time, how much energy they exert in any givenRead MoreMotivation And Theory Of Motivation1464 Words   |  6 PagesIt is suggested by psychologists that motivation can be understood as a technique that works as a model that starts and maintains behaviours. The reason we all act or do something is caused by motivation; it is related to the emotions, biology and the social factors that influence behaviour. It is usually a term used to explain why an individual will do something, the reasons behind that action. Moreover, The term motivation refers to factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behaviourRead MoreThe Theory Of Motivation And Motivation1401 Words   |  6 Pages Schools of thought in relation to motivation refer to the theories developed by different psychologists to explain motivation in dept. it is crucial to understand motivation and the factors that cause it since it contributes to achievement of one’s goal and desires in life. Therefore, motivation can be described as the process of enticing an individual through a reward to increase the occurrence of a specified behavior in an organization. Different factors can be used as motivators in an organizationRead MoreThe Theory Of Motivation And Motivation1010 Words   |  5 PagesMotivation is defined as an act or process that inspires and stimulates a person to be an effort to achieve a goal. It not only puts employees in act, but also makes them feel interesting with their job. As a result, most of employees are feeling satisfaction with their job, becoming creativity, innovation and productivity as well. However, to successful in motivating the staff is required an appropriate met hod that meets with all staff’s need. Otherwise, it is seems to useless in driving the employeesRead MoreMotivation Theory And Expectancy Theory Of Motivation1742 Words   |  7 Pagesplace. This problem mainly occurs in organisation when there is lack of motivation, lack of organisational justice, negative culture and low morale. The purpose of this case study is to give brief view about, why employees had to face these problems and how to make positive culture and what and where the changes are required for the WA force. This report introduces MARS motivation theory and Expectancy theory of motivation for improves officers’ behaviours towards force, with that how can they fillRead MoreMotivation Theories And Motivation Of Employee Motivation Essay1517 Words   |  7 Pagescontrol and some that are not. Employee motivation is something that can directly affect an organizations production. It is no secret that un-motivated employees equates to un-productive workers, but how can we combat this? In order to better understand this concept we will look at the definition of employee motivation, some of the motivation theories and some motivation techniques that could be useful in our organizations. What is employee motivation? Motivation is a word used quite often in many differentRead MoreMotivation Theories1236 Words   |  5 PagesThe four motivation theories are Biological theory, Psychosocial theory of motivation, Biopsychosocial, and Achievement theory. Everyone has their own motivation in life for continuing education, and career choices. Each person also has Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivators. Intrinsic is an internal motivation for self satisfaction. Extrinsic is an external motivation, or reward for a person’s accomplishment. Motivation Theories: Linda was motivated to go back to school because she wanted an educationRead MoreMotivation Theories1577 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Motivation is the will and desire that a person has to engage in a particular behaviour or perform a particular task† (Lawley King, P269). In life motivation will be needed to enhance the workforce in various ways, many organisations will use motivation to increase the percentage yield of an individual or to make an individual feel a part of the business or organisation. Incentives have a huge influence on behaviourist extrinsic approach. In addition other aspects; humanist theorist, intrinsic

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Director - 2736 Words

Subject: Strategic paper - Cisco Category: Business and Money Economics Asked by: k9queen-ga List Price: $60.00 |Posted: 02 Dec 2003 08:37 PST Expires: 01 Jan 2004 08:37 PST Question ID: 282626 | | |For the company CISCO, PLease give a SWOT analysis. Explain what | |their core competency is, do they have any forward/backward | |integration? What do they or are they trying to do to be competitive | |in the market? Etc. | |[pic]†¦show more content†¦Also, when you know which analysts are covering a | |company, a Google search becomes more valuable because you can find | |quotations about the company with a search like the following: | |Christin Armacost + Cisco + Cowen | |Stephen Kamman + Cisco Systems + CIBC | |Shah + Morgan Stanley + Cisco | |Buckingham Research + Sokolow + Cisco | |Merrill Lynch + Tal Liani + Cisco | |RBC Capital Markets + Wilson + Cisco | |LehmanShow MoreRelatedDirectors Duties636 Words   |  3 PagesFiduciary Duties of Directors 1) Duty to act in good faith in the interests of the company In Re W M Roith Ltd [1967] 1 All ER 427, the controlling director of a company had given many years services without having a service contract. He was then given a service agreement providing for payment of a pension to his widow if he died while still a director. He was already in poor health at this time and he died two months later. The pension was paid for several years and then the company went intoRead MoreThe Role Of Directors And Responsibilities Of Directors1619 Words   |  7 Pagesbut it is generally witnessed as the foundation of directors duty to action with due care. These principles persist to sustain under the common law and are fundamentally, though by no means specifically, mirrored in directors constitutional duties under the corporations Act 2001(Bathurst, 2013) IV. DUTIES OF DIRECTORS IN DIFFERENT COMPANIES a. Role in private and public companies It becomes vital to fathom the different groupings of directors and their duties in diverse types of companies. In applicationRead MoreMarketing Department : Marketing Director Essay1408 Words   |  6 Pagesdepartment. I interviewed in early November and had the job by the end of February. The internship started in the summer and ended right before school would begin again in August. I would be working directly under the marketing director, helping wherever I was needed. The director interviewed me and had given me the job, then took a new position at a different place of business. She had e-mailed me in early April to tell me that she would be leaving. She then assured me the hospital was looking for someoneRead MoreBoard of Directors1180 Words   |  5 PagesTHE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES [Batas Pambansa Blg. 68] TITLE III BOARD OF DIRECTORS/TRUSTEES/OFFICERS Sec. 23. The board of directors or trustees. Sec. 24. Election of directors or trustees. - At all elections of directors or trustees, there must be present, either in person or by representative authorized to act by written proxy, the owners of a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or if there be no capital stock, a majority of the members entitled to vote. The election mustRead MoreDirectors And Shareholders1998 Words   |  8 PagesDirectors and shareholders are the two main organs that make up a company. Section 250 of Companies Act 2006 defines director as ‘any person occupying the position of director, by whatever name called’. Directors have the responsibility to manage the company as they may exercise all the powers of the company. Whether or not a person uses the title of director is irrelevant in determining whether such person is a director, someone who is described as manager or governor can possibly be a directorRead MoreDirector Remuneration3629 Words   |  15 Pagesremuneration† Lipt on Herzberg p 316. Outline the laws, rules and principles governing payment and disclosure of remuneration to directors and senior executives in Australia. Explain how and why this is important in corporate governance. Compare the Australian provisions with those in other countries. Introduction: The remuneration of company directors and executives is a subject which has attracted substantial interest from shareholders, business groups, press and at the same time invokedRead MoreDirectors Duties2402 Words   |  10 Pagesï » ¿Hampton Park Pty Ltd (HP) Synopsis. In the case study of Hampton Park Pty Ltd (HP) has four directors; William (Managing Director); Susan, Jack and Gail (Non-executive directors). As HP’s financial position begins to deteriorate, George, the Chief Financial Officer of the company advises the accounts still show a profit and the company would have a solid base to pay out a dividend to its members. In July 2010cHP’s financial state worsens however George declares a technical profit and advises HPRead MoreAthletic Director Essay704 Words   |  3 PagesAssistant Athletic Director for External Relations and the Director for Media Relations to develop and implement public relations policies and objectives. Accepts public speaking engagements to promulgate department philosophies and objectives. Coordinates and supervises men=s basketball, golf, baseball, men=s and women=s tennis programs working directly with the Head Coach; supervises the administration of all other varsity programs through the Associate Athletic Director for Internal OperationsRead MoreComposition Of Board Of Directors Essay986 Words   |  4 PagesCorporate Governance Structure Composition of Board of Directors There are 22 total Air Canada Executives, an overview of their biographies are included in Appendix #2. There are total 11 directors that make up the Board of Directors (Air Canada Annual information Form, 2016). Their names and municipality, principal occupation and date since they become directors are in Appendix #3. Top Officers There are total 24 top officers currently work at Air Canada (Air Canada Annual Information form, 2016)Read MoreThe Recalcitrant Director Case873 Words   |  4 Pages9/13/2014 The Recalcitrant Director at Byte Products, Inc. CORPORATE LEGALITY VERSUS CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY | The Recalcitrant Director at Byte Products, Inc. CORPORATE LEGALITY VERSUS CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY | The Recalcitrant Director at Byte Products, Inc. Table of Contents: Questions | Page | 1- If you were one of the board members, how would you have initially voted for the proposal? What would your vote be after

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Capital Punishment And The Death Penalty Essay - 2028 Words

Capital punishment, or the death penalty, â€Å"is the lawful infliction of death as a punishment.† ( The topic is quite controversial, as its merits and effectiveness as a deterrent for crime have been argued many times over. However, the death penalty is perfectly within reason, as it rids the streets of criminals that have committed serious crimes and is also cheaper for the government versus giving life sentences. Even so, there are many who are against the death penalty. One such argument that has been made is that the death penalty is barbaric because many innocents have been sent to their deaths. Although this would be true if these opposers lived before 1986, that is not the case in today’s world because there is access to DNA tests and profiling. According to, â€Å"Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules contain the information all living cells in the human body need to function. They also control the inheritance of char acteristics from parents to offspring.† ( DNA profiling play important roles in crimes as it has the potential to link a series of crimes and to place a suspect at the scene of a crime. Not only that, but also DNA can help to prove a suspect’s innocence. With DNA testing, no innocent person will die from the death penalty simply because DNA tests can be used as concrete evidence to prove the suspect’s innocence. To start off, one should know what exactly DNA profiling is and its use for prosecution.Show MoreRelatedCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty1482 Words   |  6 PagesMrs. McElmoyl 12/12/14 Capital Punishment As stated by former governor of New York, Mario M. Cuomo, Always I have concluded the death penalty is wrong because it lowers us all; it is a surrender to the worst that is in us; it uses a power- the official power to kill by execution- that has never brought back a life, need inspired anything but hate. (Cuomo 1) This is one of the main arguments against capital punishment (also known as the death sentence.) Capital punishment is the ability for a governmentRead MoreCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty1410 Words   |  6 PagesCapital Punishment in America In 1976 the Supreme Court of the United States of America ruled the Death Penalty constitutionally permissible. The debate over capital punishment has always been a topic of great controversy. Before the Supreme Court ruling in 1976 America had been practicing capital punishment for centuries. At the current time some states enforce the death penalty, while some do not. There are differences of opinion’s relating to whether or not the death penalty is the proper wayRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1017 Words   |  5 PagesName: Lucas Falley Topic: Capital Punishment Background: Capital punishment, or the death penalty, has existed for thousands of years. For as long as there has been organized society, the death penalty has existed in numerous cultures and civilizations. Throughout the years the methods have changed, but the use of capital punishment is becoming a pressing matter. Amnesty International reports that there are 140 countries worldwide that have abolished the death penalty, while over 50 countries stillRead MoreThe Death Penalty Of Capital Punishment1480 Words   |  6 Pagesjustice system, such as the death penalty. Capital punishment has been used many times in history all around the world, and it was quite popular. Many people argue that capital punishment is useful in deterring crime and that it is only fair that criminals receive death as punishment for a heinous crime. On the contrary, others see the death penalty as a violation of the 8th amendment. It restricts excessive fines, and it also does not allow cruel and unusual punishment t o be inflicted upon criminalsRead MoreThe Death Penalty And Capital Punishment931 Words   |  4 Pageswritten down (Robert). The death penalty was applied for a particularly wide range of crimes. The Romans also used death penalty for a wide range of offenses. Historically, the death sentence was often handled with torture, and executions, except that it was done in public. In this century, the death penalty, execution or capital punishment, whatever you’d like to refer it as, is the result for committing capital crimes or capital offences and it is not in public. The death penalty has been practiced byRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty991 Words   |  4 PagesCapital Punishment Imagine your having a normal morning, eating breakfast doing your normal routine. Suddenly your phone rings and when you answer you hear the worst news possible. One of your family members has just been murdered in cold blood. You cry, mourn, then become angry. You attend the court hearing and you sit less than 20 feet away from the murderer. Do you truly believe this person deserves to live? Or should they face a punishment that is equal to their crime? Some may say CapitalRead MoreThe Death Penalty And Capital Punishment1569 Words   |  7 Pagesthe death penalty also referred to as capital punishment. The death penalty is both useless and harmful to not only criminals but also their potential victims. This paper uses these horrific facts to try and convince the reader that the death penalty should be done away with before it is too late, although that time may have already come. With supporting evidence to support my cause, I hope that the following information sways at least one reader to see the harm of keeping the death penalty an activeRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1235 Words   |  5 PagesWhat is capital punishment? Why do people support it, but yet people cherish lives? Is it a moral thing to do? Should one be for or against the Death Penalty? Let’s take a look deep into the world of justices and why capital punishment still exists in today’s society. Capital punishment or the death penalty is a feder al punishment given to criminals who are convicted of murders. It is the highest law punishment available that can prevent future murders by developing fear within them. Capital punishmentRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is A Capital Punishment1271 Words   |  6 Pages What is the death penalty? The death penalty is a capital punishment that is punishable by death or execution. This is usually given to people that have committed serious offences or capital crimes. There are 31 states in the United States that are for the death penalty. Crimes that are punishable by the death penalty, vary from state to state. Examples of such crimes are; first degree murder or premeditated murder, murder with special circumstances, such as: intended, multiple, and murder whichRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1539 Words   |  7 PagesCapital punishment, otherwise known as the death penalty, has been the center of debate for a long time. Capital punishment may be defined as the â€Å" [e]xecution of an offender sentenced to death after conviction by a court of law of a criminal offense† (Capital Punishment). Up until 1846, when Michigan became the first to abolish the death sentence, all states allowed legal practice of capital punishment by the government (States). Currently, there 32 states still supporting the death penalty and 18

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Relevance of Alma-Ata Declaration Free Sample for Students

Question: Write an Essay on the Relevance of Alma-Ata Declaration. Answer: Introduction The WHO Health Assembly in 1977 made a resolution that the main goal for nations across the globe in the decades to come, would be to ensure that their citizens attained a level of health by the year 2000, that would allow them to live an economically and socially productive life. This target or aspiration was referred to as "Health For All." The question that arose at that time and still remains is whether the HFA objective was possible. Is it an operation that can be attained? What would need to be done for HFA to be a reality? The answer that was proposed was Primary Health Care. That said the following year, UNICEF and WHO sponsored a major conference in which the agenda was PHC and that was held in Alma-Ata. The reaffirmation of health as a basic human right was the main agenda of the conference and the declaration was made that PHC was the key for the attainment of this target and which was a part of social justice development. In this paper, the relevance of the declaration is analyzed in the current-day lens, close to 40 years after it was made. The relevance of the Alma-Ata is discussed and the way forward with regard in its sustainability is also highlighted. Thesis Statement: The relevance of the Alma-Ata Declaration lies in community health Current challenges in the global healthcare systems Countries in the middle and low income levels, as well as high income countries, all face the challenge of increased non-communicable illness prevalence. This change has resulted in the simultaneous existence of under nutrition, persistent infectious diseases, and problems related to reproductive health along with the emergence of non-communicable diseases with their associated risk factors (including cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and smoking) (Fren Moon, 2013). This transition in epidemiology presents a major challenge to the global healthcare systems. A majority of these systems are focused around child and maternal health as well as the care of episodic, acute illnesses. The future needs PHCs that are appropriate and which are capable of delivering effective chronic disease management as well. Global initiatives that focus on prioritized diseases such as malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDS may be undermining the wide services in healthcare through effort duplication, national budgets and health plan distortion, and more so via the re-routing of the valuable and scarce human resource (Congressional Research Service, 2012). More often than not, disease control technicalities take precedence over holistic care. On a rather ironic note, the Alma-Ata declaration highlighted the short comings of the single issue, top-down programs. The horizontal integration and PHC of health programs is critical in the attainment of the MDGs. An example is the integration efforts of preventive chemotherapy programmes that are targeted at five of what are referred to as the neglected tropical diseases, which are estimated to result in major cost cuts of more than 47% (WHO, 2014) PHC also plays the role of linking the interface between hospital and ambulatory care; speciality services and hospitals; community health and the individual; and family planning and nutrition programs. By failing to see the connection between the various district health care system components, adverse inefficiency becomes the end result. In countries at the low income level, the first care level can resolve close to 90% of its citizens heath care services demands. There is sufficient evidence indicating that health systems that focus on PHC have a high likelihood of delivering better outcomes with regard to health for the public ,with greater satisfaction among recipients in addition to greater savings in costs (Salam, Lassi, Daset al., (2014) There is no one-system-fits-all (Henderson, 2015).A major challenge is in the establishment of a combination of interventions that are most effective and which target several risk factors and conditions that affect the main groups(for example, the elderly, children, and women) and that are adopted in an appropriate manner at the local level in socio-cultural, economic, and epidemiological contexts. Interventions' clustering results in the achievement of comprehensiveness, resource limitations notwithstanding. These kinds of clusters will include management integration of illnesses affecting children, reproductive and maternal healthcare; community and clinic based management of malaria, TB, STIs, and HIV/AIDS; management of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and stroke; substance abuse and mental illness (Henderson, 2015) PHC constitutes the first contact point for family and patient care in addition to being the critical foundation for the extension of care to vulnerable communities. Focus of outreach services may be on preventive measures at an individual level (such as ORT, vitamin A, or immunizations) or health promotion at the community level (such as exercise, diet, or child nutrition). The provision of these services relies heavily on the mechanisms and support for the identification, training, as well as support of the community health care workers (White, 2015) The universal challenge is affordability. Defining which services can be provided at no-charge and in a realistic manner at the first contact point and the financial mechanism mix that need to be promoted, is a question begging for an answer. User charges for provision of PHC is a major issue of contention as there has been repeated deterrence in the people that really need the services not being able to access the same. Indeed, providing financial incentives to poor populations is an effective option. There are several countries that have pilot schemes that offer financial incentives in the form of vouchers and money to increase and encourage community members' access specific services such as family planning and maternity services (Grainger, Gorter, Okal et al. 2014). Monitoring health care services and outcomes is also a viable way of improving access that is equitable. This is in addition to providing incentives to the human resource that delivers services to the community membe rs that are vulnerable. The stark reality in countries in the middle and low income levels is that most healthcare service will continue to be a job done by NGOs and private organizations (Basu, Andrews, Kishore et al., 2012) Most places across the globe and more so in Sub Sahara Africa, have human resource shortfalls that cripple the healthcare services partly because of internal and international migration which has renewed the interest in mobilising community workers to fill in the gap. The irony is that the poor countries that used industrialised countries' training standards are the same that are most vulnerable to poaching by their mentors. A major challenge is overcoming the sense of resignation and motivation loss of majority of PHC workers who work in minimally staffed settings. These staffs lack managerial support that is consistent and have adjusted to inadequate services (Bonenberger, Marc, Moses et al., 2014). PHC jobs in most developing countries are viewed as being menial and are not valued by policy makers or the public. To reverse this perception, adequate governance and prioritized political commitment, as well as adequate funding, will change the status and make primary care an attract ive option for workers (Boneneberger, et al., 2014) The Relevance of the Alma-Ata declaration is synched to community health care Global efforts toward convergence of grand health are propelled by the Sustainable Development Goals where children and women form poor communities are able to access the same quality levels of health services as those from wealthier countries. When recognition is given to communities as being change factors that are key for the transformation of health care systems for adolescents, children, women, and other vulnerable groups, and when such communities are empowered and valued for the assets they possess, then it becomes possible for progress to be driven and sustained toward health outcomes that are equitable and accelerate the progress toward maternal and child mortality (UNICEF, 2013). It is a known fact that mortality rate of 2.4 million children and mothers can be averted every year(Black, Levin, Walker et al., 2016) through the scaling up and strengthening of evidence-based packaged interventions that focus on volunteers at the community level, salaried healthcare community workers, and communities that are involved and committed to the course. However, there has been lagging in health systems with regard to strengthening the community and existing initiatives have gained traction at a very slow pace at the community level, often resulting with communities as recipients of services rather than empowering the key actors who are capable of strengthening the systems and making them more equitable. In decentralized environments, the challenge of implementing national policies on community health remains a major issue (Black et al., 2016). While there is continued accumulation on evidence that supports community empowerment and engagement effectiveness in saving lives of children, newborns, and mothers, more is needed in acquisition of knowledge on building, sustaining, and scaling vibrant partnerships in communities that are integrated effectively within the healthcare systems. This is a critical step in the development of supportive programs and policies for community health and for the documentation, replication, and scaling up of approaches that are successful with regard to other vulnerable groups as well. Health efforts at the community level are complex requiring a variety of methods for the documentation of what works and comprehending why, within different countries is necessary. Countries should focus on building community health systems that are stronger and which are capable of driving progress toward the achievement of the SDGs. Developing countries should be ready to emulate the few countries that have built successful community platforms and are on the path to ensuring the universal access of primary care for mothers , children, and other vulnerable groups. To do so, a meaningful focus and attention should be given to community healthcare development. Although this is not a novel idea, focusing on community health development should aim at supporting the roles of members as empowered and valued actors for services delivery; provision of oversight for health services delivery at all levels; improving and advancing health literacy and social norms that encourage good health; enhancement of health systems' accountability to the recipients; and giving a voice to those who have been denied one. This vision encapsulates strengthening of community systems through empowerment, agency, cohesion, trust, participation, and inclusion. Facilitation of community empowerment and participation Active participation of the community is necessary for interventions to be effective including those for children, newborn, and maternal health and diseases that are environment related. Community participation goes beyond mobilization of persons in accepting interventions. The need for a move from focusing on health education (information provision) to promotion of health (transformation of behaviour and attitudes) is necessary for the empowerment of communities to have roles that are more active with regard to their health (Foot, Gilbert, Dunn et al., 2014). Messages that promote health are dynamic- the transition and epidemiological rise in non-communicable, chronic diseases among the elderly populations, tobacco use, changing diets, and lives that are more sedentary, will call for messages that are appropriate and dissemination of the same in an effective way. Through health promotion and education in schools, communities will be empowered to take control with reference to their individual health. The main challenge for mobilization of communities lies in replicating it at scale in an effective manner (Campbell Cornish, 2012; Marston, Renedo, Mcgowan et al., 2013). The earlier emphasis on participation by communities was focusing on poor populations living in rural areas. However, most of the global populace resides in the cities and the need for urban population community engagement requires models of care that are functional. Conclusion Every level- global, national, provincial, district, facility, community, family, and individual- has a responsibility and role to fulfill if HFA is to be achieved. Delivery of results with an approach based on PHC will require links, partnerships, and an environment that is enabling including support from the bottom-up from communities that are empowered, support form the top-down from governments that are responsible, and across state and municipal levels, and support from external financial and technical resources, when appropriate and needed. There is a need to strengthen PHC facilities and services and link them to the communities in which they are located and whom they serve. However, PHC is much broader than the health system and hence greater action is needed. The Alma-Ata declaration emphasized on intersectoral and community collaboration and that is needed now more than ever in light of the increasing development architecture complexity. There is a need for measurable and p ragmatic approaches that construct evidence on the manner in which these strategies can be implemented ,in the best way possible, and within various settings. References Basu,S; Andrews, J; Kishore,S; Panjabi, R, Stuckler, D (2012). Comparative Performance of Private and Public Healthcare Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review. Black, R.E., Levin, C., Walker, N., Chou, D., Liu, L., Temmerman, M. (2016). Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: key messages from Disease Control Priorities 3rd Edition. The Lancet, 388 (10061), 2811-2824. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00738-8 Bonenberger, Marc, Moses Aikins, Patricia Akweongo, and Kaspar Wyss. (2014). 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