Monday, May 25, 2020

Theories of Motivation - 1011 Words

Theories of Motivation Arousal: * A person’s state of alertness and mental and physical activation. Arousal Theory: * People are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal. * The optimal level is different for all of us. Stimulus Motives: * Motives that cause us to increase stimulation. * Appear to be unlearned, * Curiosity, exploration, and play that occur when your arousal is too low. Yerkes-Dodson Law Yerkes-Dodson Law: * Principle that performance on a task is best when arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task: * Higher arousal for simple tasks. * Moderate arousal level for moderate tasks. * Low arousal for difficult tasks. Sensory Deprivation: * A†¦show more content†¦ATTRIBUTIONS * Situational attributions: the person attributes behaviour to some external cause or factor operating with the situation. * Disposal attributions: the person attributes the behaviour to some internal cause or personal trait. * Actor-observer bias: the tendency to attribute our own shortcomings primarily to situational factors and those of others to internal or dispositional factors. FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR * Our overemphasis on internal factors and underestimation of external factors when we explain other people’s behaviour. SELF-SERVING BIAS We attribute our successes to dispositional causes and failures to situational causes FACTORS INFLUENCING ATTRACTION * Proximity or geographic closeness * Mere-exposure effect * Reciprocity or reciprocal liking * Physical attractiveness * Matching hypothesis * Similarity SOCIAL INFLUENCE * Conformity: * Changing one’s behaviour or attitude in order to be consistent with the norms of a group or the expectations of others * Solomon asch study * Norms: * Attitudes and standards of behaviour expected of members of a group. * Obedience: * Following orders * Stanley milgram study COMPLIANCE * Foot-in-the-door technique: first make a small request andShow MoreRelatedTheories Of Motivation And Motivation Theories1493 Words   |  6 Pagesextent, needs of theories of motivation are still relevant to contemporary management practice. Theories of motivation are important as it helps managers to understand their employees’ needs of motivations, and to motivate their employees to perform and excel better. There are several motivation theories; this essay will briefly explain six major theories of motivation and discuss three of the theories in more detail. This essay will also explain the needs theories of motivation, and will focus onRead MoreMotivation Theory : Motivation And Motivation846 Words   |  4 PagesProfessor Jones Psychology April 28 2016 Motivation Theories Having motivation to do something is very important. Motivation plays a huge roll in everyone’s life, even If someone has very little motivation. There are several types of motivation such as Instinct and drive motivation. These two motivations are quite similar, but different at the same time. I will compare and contrast both of these types of motivation and what I think about them. These motivations are very important to your life and canRead MoreMotivation Theories Of Motivation And Motivation Essay1020 Words   |  5 Pages Overview of Presentation What is motivation? Cognitive theories of Motivation Forms of Motivation Motivation Theories Profile of Motivational Problems How to Motivate Students What is Motivation? Many different theorists have tried to define what is meant by motiviation. Urdan and Schoenfelder (2006) defined Motivation as follows: â€Å"Motivation is a complex part of human psychology and behavior that influences how individuals choose to invest their time, how much energy they exert in any givenRead MoreMotivation And Theory Of Motivation1464 Words   |  6 PagesIt is suggested by psychologists that motivation can be understood as a technique that works as a model that starts and maintains behaviours. The reason we all act or do something is caused by motivation; it is related to the emotions, biology and the social factors that influence behaviour. It is usually a term used to explain why an individual will do something, the reasons behind that action. Moreover, The term motivation refers to factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behaviourRead MoreThe Theory Of Motivation And Motivation1401 Words   |  6 Pages Schools of thought in relation to motivation refer to the theories developed by different psychologists to explain motivation in dept. it is crucial to understand motivation and the factors that cause it since it contributes to achievement of one’s goal and desires in life. Therefore, motivation can be described as the process of enticing an individual through a reward to increase the occurrence of a specified behavior in an organization. Different factors can be used as motivators in an organizationRead MoreThe Theory Of Motivation And Motivation1010 Words   |  5 PagesMotivation is defined as an act or process that inspires and stimulates a person to be an effort to achieve a goal. It not only puts employees in act, but also makes them feel interesting with their job. As a result, most of employees are feeling satisfaction with their job, becoming creativity, innovation and productivity as well. However, to successful in motivating the staff is required an appropriate met hod that meets with all staff’s need. Otherwise, it is seems to useless in driving the employeesRead MoreMotivation Theory And Expectancy Theory Of Motivation1742 Words   |  7 Pagesplace. This problem mainly occurs in organisation when there is lack of motivation, lack of organisational justice, negative culture and low morale. The purpose of this case study is to give brief view about, why employees had to face these problems and how to make positive culture and what and where the changes are required for the WA force. This report introduces MARS motivation theory and Expectancy theory of motivation for improves officers’ behaviours towards force, with that how can they fillRead MoreMotivation Theories And Motivation Of Employee Motivation Essay1517 Words   |  7 Pagescontrol and some that are not. Employee motivation is something that can directly affect an organizations production. It is no secret that un-motivated employees equates to un-productive workers, but how can we combat this? In order to better understand this concept we will look at the definition of employee motivation, some of the motivation theories and some motivation techniques that could be useful in our organizations. What is employee motivation? Motivation is a word used quite often in many differentRead MoreMotivation Theories1236 Words   |  5 PagesThe four motivation theories are Biological theory, Psychosocial theory of motivation, Biopsychosocial, and Achievement theory. Everyone has their own motivation in life for continuing education, and career choices. Each person also has Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivators. Intrinsic is an internal motivation for self satisfaction. Extrinsic is an external motivation, or reward for a person’s accomplishment. Motivation Theories: Linda was motivated to go back to school because she wanted an educationRead MoreMotivation Theories1577 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Motivation is the will and desire that a person has to engage in a particular behaviour or perform a particular task† (Lawley King, P269). In life motivation will be needed to enhance the workforce in various ways, many organisations will use motivation to increase the percentage yield of an individual or to make an individual feel a part of the business or organisation. Incentives have a huge influence on behaviourist extrinsic approach. In addition other aspects; humanist theorist, intrinsic

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Director - 2736 Words

Subject: Strategic paper - Cisco Category: Business and Money Economics Asked by: k9queen-ga List Price: $60.00 |Posted: 02 Dec 2003 08:37 PST Expires: 01 Jan 2004 08:37 PST Question ID: 282626 | | |For the company CISCO, PLease give a SWOT analysis. Explain what | |their core competency is, do they have any forward/backward | |integration? What do they or are they trying to do to be competitive | |in the market? Etc. | |[pic]†¦show more content†¦Also, when you know which analysts are covering a | |company, a Google search becomes more valuable because you can find | |quotations about the company with a search like the following: | |Christin Armacost + Cisco + Cowen | |Stephen Kamman + Cisco Systems + CIBC | |Shah + Morgan Stanley + Cisco | |Buckingham Research + Sokolow + Cisco | |Merrill Lynch + Tal Liani + Cisco | |RBC Capital Markets + Wilson + Cisco | |LehmanShow MoreRelatedDirectors Duties636 Words   |  3 PagesFiduciary Duties of Directors 1) Duty to act in good faith in the interests of the company In Re W M Roith Ltd [1967] 1 All ER 427, the controlling director of a company had given many years services without having a service contract. He was then given a service agreement providing for payment of a pension to his widow if he died while still a director. He was already in poor health at this time and he died two months later. The pension was paid for several years and then the company went intoRead MoreThe Role Of Directors And Responsibilities Of Directors1619 Words   |  7 Pagesbut it is generally witnessed as the foundation of directors duty to action with due care. These principles persist to sustain under the common law and are fundamentally, though by no means specifically, mirrored in directors constitutional duties under the corporations Act 2001(Bathurst, 2013) IV. DUTIES OF DIRECTORS IN DIFFERENT COMPANIES a. Role in private and public companies It becomes vital to fathom the different groupings of directors and their duties in diverse types of companies. In applicationRead MoreMarketing Department : Marketing Director Essay1408 Words   |  6 Pagesdepartment. I interviewed in early November and had the job by the end of February. The internship started in the summer and ended right before school would begin again in August. I would be working directly under the marketing director, helping wherever I was needed. The director interviewed me and had given me the job, then took a new position at a different place of business. She had e-mailed me in early April to tell me that she would be leaving. She then assured me the hospital was looking for someoneRead MoreBoard of Directors1180 Words   |  5 PagesTHE CORPORATION CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES [Batas Pambansa Blg. 68] TITLE III BOARD OF DIRECTORS/TRUSTEES/OFFICERS Sec. 23. The board of directors or trustees. Sec. 24. Election of directors or trustees. - At all elections of directors or trustees, there must be present, either in person or by representative authorized to act by written proxy, the owners of a majority of the outstanding capital stock, or if there be no capital stock, a majority of the members entitled to vote. The election mustRead MoreDirectors And Shareholders1998 Words   |  8 PagesDirectors and shareholders are the two main organs that make up a company. Section 250 of Companies Act 2006 defines director as ‘any person occupying the position of director, by whatever name called’. Directors have the responsibility to manage the company as they may exercise all the powers of the company. Whether or not a person uses the title of director is irrelevant in determining whether such person is a director, someone who is described as manager or governor can possibly be a directorRead MoreDirector Remuneration3629 Words   |  15 Pagesremuneration† Lipt on Herzberg p 316. Outline the laws, rules and principles governing payment and disclosure of remuneration to directors and senior executives in Australia. Explain how and why this is important in corporate governance. Compare the Australian provisions with those in other countries. Introduction: The remuneration of company directors and executives is a subject which has attracted substantial interest from shareholders, business groups, press and at the same time invokedRead MoreDirectors Duties2402 Words   |  10 Pagesï » ¿Hampton Park Pty Ltd (HP) Synopsis. In the case study of Hampton Park Pty Ltd (HP) has four directors; William (Managing Director); Susan, Jack and Gail (Non-executive directors). As HP’s financial position begins to deteriorate, George, the Chief Financial Officer of the company advises the accounts still show a profit and the company would have a solid base to pay out a dividend to its members. In July 2010cHP’s financial state worsens however George declares a technical profit and advises HPRead MoreAthletic Director Essay704 Words   |  3 PagesAssistant Athletic Director for External Relations and the Director for Media Relations to develop and implement public relations policies and objectives. Accepts public speaking engagements to promulgate department philosophies and objectives. Coordinates and supervises men=s basketball, golf, baseball, men=s and women=s tennis programs working directly with the Head Coach; supervises the administration of all other varsity programs through the Associate Athletic Director for Internal OperationsRead MoreComposition Of Board Of Directors Essay986 Words   |  4 PagesCorporate Governance Structure Composition of Board of Directors There are 22 total Air Canada Executives, an overview of their biographies are included in Appendix #2. There are total 11 directors that make up the Board of Directors (Air Canada Annual information Form, 2016). Their names and municipality, principal occupation and date since they become directors are in Appendix #3. Top Officers There are total 24 top officers currently work at Air Canada (Air Canada Annual Information form, 2016)Read MoreThe Recalcitrant Director Case873 Words   |  4 Pages9/13/2014 The Recalcitrant Director at Byte Products, Inc. CORPORATE LEGALITY VERSUS CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY | The Recalcitrant Director at Byte Products, Inc. CORPORATE LEGALITY VERSUS CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY | The Recalcitrant Director at Byte Products, Inc. Table of Contents: Questions | Page | 1- If you were one of the board members, how would you have initially voted for the proposal? What would your vote be after

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Capital Punishment And The Death Penalty Essay - 2028 Words

Capital punishment, or the death penalty, â€Å"is the lawful infliction of death as a punishment.† (thefreedictionary.com). The topic is quite controversial, as its merits and effectiveness as a deterrent for crime have been argued many times over. However, the death penalty is perfectly within reason, as it rids the streets of criminals that have committed serious crimes and is also cheaper for the government versus giving life sentences. Even so, there are many who are against the death penalty. One such argument that has been made is that the death penalty is barbaric because many innocents have been sent to their deaths. Although this would be true if these opposers lived before 1986, that is not the case in today’s world because there is access to DNA tests and profiling. According to www.interpol.int, â€Å"Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules contain the information all living cells in the human body need to function. They also control the inheritance of char acteristics from parents to offspring.† (interpol.int). DNA profiling play important roles in crimes as it has the potential to link a series of crimes and to place a suspect at the scene of a crime. Not only that, but also DNA can help to prove a suspect’s innocence. With DNA testing, no innocent person will die from the death penalty simply because DNA tests can be used as concrete evidence to prove the suspect’s innocence. To start off, one should know what exactly DNA profiling is and its use for prosecution.Show MoreRelatedCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty1482 Words   |  6 PagesMrs. McElmoyl 12/12/14 Capital Punishment As stated by former governor of New York, Mario M. Cuomo, Always I have concluded the death penalty is wrong because it lowers us all; it is a surrender to the worst that is in us; it uses a power- the official power to kill by execution- that has never brought back a life, need inspired anything but hate. (Cuomo 1) This is one of the main arguments against capital punishment (also known as the death sentence.) Capital punishment is the ability for a governmentRead MoreCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty1410 Words   |  6 PagesCapital Punishment in America In 1976 the Supreme Court of the United States of America ruled the Death Penalty constitutionally permissible. The debate over capital punishment has always been a topic of great controversy. Before the Supreme Court ruling in 1976 America had been practicing capital punishment for centuries. At the current time some states enforce the death penalty, while some do not. There are differences of opinion’s relating to whether or not the death penalty is the proper wayRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1017 Words   |  5 PagesName: Lucas Falley Topic: Capital Punishment Background: Capital punishment, or the death penalty, has existed for thousands of years. For as long as there has been organized society, the death penalty has existed in numerous cultures and civilizations. Throughout the years the methods have changed, but the use of capital punishment is becoming a pressing matter. Amnesty International reports that there are 140 countries worldwide that have abolished the death penalty, while over 50 countries stillRead MoreThe Death Penalty Of Capital Punishment1480 Words   |  6 Pagesjustice system, such as the death penalty. Capital punishment has been used many times in history all around the world, and it was quite popular. Many people argue that capital punishment is useful in deterring crime and that it is only fair that criminals receive death as punishment for a heinous crime. On the contrary, others see the death penalty as a violation of the 8th amendment. It restricts excessive fines, and it also does not allow cruel and unusual punishment t o be inflicted upon criminalsRead MoreThe Death Penalty And Capital Punishment931 Words   |  4 Pageswritten down (Robert). The death penalty was applied for a particularly wide range of crimes. The Romans also used death penalty for a wide range of offenses. Historically, the death sentence was often handled with torture, and executions, except that it was done in public. In this century, the death penalty, execution or capital punishment, whatever you’d like to refer it as, is the result for committing capital crimes or capital offences and it is not in public. The death penalty has been practiced byRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty991 Words   |  4 PagesCapital Punishment Imagine your having a normal morning, eating breakfast doing your normal routine. Suddenly your phone rings and when you answer you hear the worst news possible. One of your family members has just been murdered in cold blood. You cry, mourn, then become angry. You attend the court hearing and you sit less than 20 feet away from the murderer. Do you truly believe this person deserves to live? Or should they face a punishment that is equal to their crime? Some may say CapitalRead MoreThe Death Penalty And Capital Punishment1569 Words   |  7 Pagesthe death penalty also referred to as capital punishment. The death penalty is both useless and harmful to not only criminals but also their potential victims. This paper uses these horrific facts to try and convince the reader that the death penalty should be done away with before it is too late, although that time may have already come. With supporting evidence to support my cause, I hope that the following information sways at least one reader to see the harm of keeping the death penalty an activeRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1235 Words   |  5 PagesWhat is capital punishment? Why do people support it, but yet people cherish lives? Is it a moral thing to do? Should one be for or against the Death Penalty? Let’s take a look deep into the world of justices and why capital punishment still exists in today’s society. Capital punishment or the death penalty is a feder al punishment given to criminals who are convicted of murders. It is the highest law punishment available that can prevent future murders by developing fear within them. Capital punishmentRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is A Capital Punishment1271 Words   |  6 Pages What is the death penalty? The death penalty is a capital punishment that is punishable by death or execution. This is usually given to people that have committed serious offences or capital crimes. There are 31 states in the United States that are for the death penalty. Crimes that are punishable by the death penalty, vary from state to state. Examples of such crimes are; first degree murder or premeditated murder, murder with special circumstances, such as: intended, multiple, and murder whichRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty1539 Words   |  7 PagesCapital punishment, otherwise known as the death penalty, has been the center of debate for a long time. Capital punishment may be defined as the â€Å" [e]xecution of an offender sentenced to death after conviction by a court of law of a criminal offense† (Capital Punishment). Up until 1846, when Michigan became the first to abolish the death sentence, all states allowed legal practice of capital punishment by the government (States). Currently, there 32 states still supporting the death penalty and 18

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Relevance of Alma-Ata Declaration Free Sample for Students

Question: Write an Essay on the Relevance of Alma-Ata Declaration. Answer: Introduction The WHO Health Assembly in 1977 made a resolution that the main goal for nations across the globe in the decades to come, would be to ensure that their citizens attained a level of health by the year 2000, that would allow them to live an economically and socially productive life. This target or aspiration was referred to as "Health For All." The question that arose at that time and still remains is whether the HFA objective was possible. Is it an operation that can be attained? What would need to be done for HFA to be a reality? The answer that was proposed was Primary Health Care. That said the following year, UNICEF and WHO sponsored a major conference in which the agenda was PHC and that was held in Alma-Ata. The reaffirmation of health as a basic human right was the main agenda of the conference and the declaration was made that PHC was the key for the attainment of this target and which was a part of social justice development. In this paper, the relevance of the declaration is analyzed in the current-day lens, close to 40 years after it was made. The relevance of the Alma-Ata is discussed and the way forward with regard in its sustainability is also highlighted. Thesis Statement: The relevance of the Alma-Ata Declaration lies in community health Current challenges in the global healthcare systems Countries in the middle and low income levels, as well as high income countries, all face the challenge of increased non-communicable illness prevalence. This change has resulted in the simultaneous existence of under nutrition, persistent infectious diseases, and problems related to reproductive health along with the emergence of non-communicable diseases with their associated risk factors (including cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and smoking) (Fren Moon, 2013). This transition in epidemiology presents a major challenge to the global healthcare systems. A majority of these systems are focused around child and maternal health as well as the care of episodic, acute illnesses. The future needs PHCs that are appropriate and which are capable of delivering effective chronic disease management as well. Global initiatives that focus on prioritized diseases such as malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDS may be undermining the wide services in healthcare through effort duplication, national budgets and health plan distortion, and more so via the re-routing of the valuable and scarce human resource (Congressional Research Service, 2012). More often than not, disease control technicalities take precedence over holistic care. On a rather ironic note, the Alma-Ata declaration highlighted the short comings of the single issue, top-down programs. The horizontal integration and PHC of health programs is critical in the attainment of the MDGs. An example is the integration efforts of preventive chemotherapy programmes that are targeted at five of what are referred to as the neglected tropical diseases, which are estimated to result in major cost cuts of more than 47% (WHO, 2014) PHC also plays the role of linking the interface between hospital and ambulatory care; speciality services and hospitals; community health and the individual; and family planning and nutrition programs. By failing to see the connection between the various district health care system components, adverse inefficiency becomes the end result. In countries at the low income level, the first care level can resolve close to 90% of its citizens heath care services demands. There is sufficient evidence indicating that health systems that focus on PHC have a high likelihood of delivering better outcomes with regard to health for the public ,with greater satisfaction among recipients in addition to greater savings in costs (Salam, Lassi, Daset al., (2014) There is no one-system-fits-all (Henderson, 2015).A major challenge is in the establishment of a combination of interventions that are most effective and which target several risk factors and conditions that affect the main groups(for example, the elderly, children, and women) and that are adopted in an appropriate manner at the local level in socio-cultural, economic, and epidemiological contexts. Interventions' clustering results in the achievement of comprehensiveness, resource limitations notwithstanding. These kinds of clusters will include management integration of illnesses affecting children, reproductive and maternal healthcare; community and clinic based management of malaria, TB, STIs, and HIV/AIDS; management of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and stroke; substance abuse and mental illness (Henderson, 2015) PHC constitutes the first contact point for family and patient care in addition to being the critical foundation for the extension of care to vulnerable communities. Focus of outreach services may be on preventive measures at an individual level (such as ORT, vitamin A, or immunizations) or health promotion at the community level (such as exercise, diet, or child nutrition). The provision of these services relies heavily on the mechanisms and support for the identification, training, as well as support of the community health care workers (White, 2015) The universal challenge is affordability. Defining which services can be provided at no-charge and in a realistic manner at the first contact point and the financial mechanism mix that need to be promoted, is a question begging for an answer. User charges for provision of PHC is a major issue of contention as there has been repeated deterrence in the people that really need the services not being able to access the same. Indeed, providing financial incentives to poor populations is an effective option. There are several countries that have pilot schemes that offer financial incentives in the form of vouchers and money to increase and encourage community members' access specific services such as family planning and maternity services (Grainger, Gorter, Okal et al. 2014). Monitoring health care services and outcomes is also a viable way of improving access that is equitable. This is in addition to providing incentives to the human resource that delivers services to the community membe rs that are vulnerable. The stark reality in countries in the middle and low income levels is that most healthcare service will continue to be a job done by NGOs and private organizations (Basu, Andrews, Kishore et al., 2012) Most places across the globe and more so in Sub Sahara Africa, have human resource shortfalls that cripple the healthcare services partly because of internal and international migration which has renewed the interest in mobilising community workers to fill in the gap. The irony is that the poor countries that used industrialised countries' training standards are the same that are most vulnerable to poaching by their mentors. A major challenge is overcoming the sense of resignation and motivation loss of majority of PHC workers who work in minimally staffed settings. These staffs lack managerial support that is consistent and have adjusted to inadequate services (Bonenberger, Marc, Moses et al., 2014). PHC jobs in most developing countries are viewed as being menial and are not valued by policy makers or the public. To reverse this perception, adequate governance and prioritized political commitment, as well as adequate funding, will change the status and make primary care an attract ive option for workers (Boneneberger, et al., 2014) The Relevance of the Alma-Ata declaration is synched to community health care Global efforts toward convergence of grand health are propelled by the Sustainable Development Goals where children and women form poor communities are able to access the same quality levels of health services as those from wealthier countries. When recognition is given to communities as being change factors that are key for the transformation of health care systems for adolescents, children, women, and other vulnerable groups, and when such communities are empowered and valued for the assets they possess, then it becomes possible for progress to be driven and sustained toward health outcomes that are equitable and accelerate the progress toward maternal and child mortality (UNICEF, 2013). It is a known fact that mortality rate of 2.4 million children and mothers can be averted every year(Black, Levin, Walker et al., 2016) through the scaling up and strengthening of evidence-based packaged interventions that focus on volunteers at the community level, salaried healthcare community workers, and communities that are involved and committed to the course. However, there has been lagging in health systems with regard to strengthening the community and existing initiatives have gained traction at a very slow pace at the community level, often resulting with communities as recipients of services rather than empowering the key actors who are capable of strengthening the systems and making them more equitable. In decentralized environments, the challenge of implementing national policies on community health remains a major issue (Black et al., 2016). While there is continued accumulation on evidence that supports community empowerment and engagement effectiveness in saving lives of children, newborns, and mothers, more is needed in acquisition of knowledge on building, sustaining, and scaling vibrant partnerships in communities that are integrated effectively within the healthcare systems. This is a critical step in the development of supportive programs and policies for community health and for the documentation, replication, and scaling up of approaches that are successful with regard to other vulnerable groups as well. Health efforts at the community level are complex requiring a variety of methods for the documentation of what works and comprehending why, within different countries is necessary. Countries should focus on building community health systems that are stronger and which are capable of driving progress toward the achievement of the SDGs. Developing countries should be ready to emulate the few countries that have built successful community platforms and are on the path to ensuring the universal access of primary care for mothers , children, and other vulnerable groups. To do so, a meaningful focus and attention should be given to community healthcare development. Although this is not a novel idea, focusing on community health development should aim at supporting the roles of members as empowered and valued actors for services delivery; provision of oversight for health services delivery at all levels; improving and advancing health literacy and social norms that encourage good health; enhancement of health systems' accountability to the recipients; and giving a voice to those who have been denied one. This vision encapsulates strengthening of community systems through empowerment, agency, cohesion, trust, participation, and inclusion. Facilitation of community empowerment and participation Active participation of the community is necessary for interventions to be effective including those for children, newborn, and maternal health and diseases that are environment related. Community participation goes beyond mobilization of persons in accepting interventions. The need for a move from focusing on health education (information provision) to promotion of health (transformation of behaviour and attitudes) is necessary for the empowerment of communities to have roles that are more active with regard to their health (Foot, Gilbert, Dunn et al., 2014). Messages that promote health are dynamic- the transition and epidemiological rise in non-communicable, chronic diseases among the elderly populations, tobacco use, changing diets, and lives that are more sedentary, will call for messages that are appropriate and dissemination of the same in an effective way. Through health promotion and education in schools, communities will be empowered to take control with reference to their individual health. The main challenge for mobilization of communities lies in replicating it at scale in an effective manner (Campbell Cornish, 2012; Marston, Renedo, Mcgowan et al., 2013). The earlier emphasis on participation by communities was focusing on poor populations living in rural areas. However, most of the global populace resides in the cities and the need for urban population community engagement requires models of care that are functional. Conclusion Every level- global, national, provincial, district, facility, community, family, and individual- has a responsibility and role to fulfill if HFA is to be achieved. Delivery of results with an approach based on PHC will require links, partnerships, and an environment that is enabling including support from the bottom-up from communities that are empowered, support form the top-down from governments that are responsible, and across state and municipal levels, and support from external financial and technical resources, when appropriate and needed. There is a need to strengthen PHC facilities and services and link them to the communities in which they are located and whom they serve. However, PHC is much broader than the health system and hence greater action is needed. The Alma-Ata declaration emphasized on intersectoral and community collaboration and that is needed now more than ever in light of the increasing development architecture complexity. There is a need for measurable and p ragmatic approaches that construct evidence on the manner in which these strategies can be implemented ,in the best way possible, and within various settings. References Basu,S; Andrews, J; Kishore,S; Panjabi, R, Stuckler, D (2012). Comparative Performance of Private and Public Healthcare Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review. https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001244 Black, R.E., Levin, C., Walker, N., Chou, D., Liu, L., Temmerman, M. (2016). Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: key messages from Disease Control Priorities 3rd Edition. The Lancet, 388 (10061), 2811-2824. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00738-8 Bonenberger, Marc, Moses Aikins, Patricia Akweongo, and Kaspar Wyss. (2014). "The effects of health worker motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention in Ghana: a cross-sectional study". Hum Resour Health 12, no. 43;10-1186.Campbell C, Cornish F (2012) How can community health programmes build enabling environments for transformative communication? Experiences from India and South Africa. AIDS Behav 16: 847857. Congressional Research Service (2012). The Globbal Challenge of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20120529_R41802_3707b8ef1bad19b1cf56bfda27a712b074f40856.pdf Foot, C; Gilbert, H; Dunn, P; Jabbal J; Seale, B; et al., (2014). People in control of their own health and care: the state of involvement. https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/files/kf/field/field_publication_file/people-in-control-of-their-own-health-and-care-the-state-of-involvement-november-2014.pdf Frenk, J Moon, S. (2013). Governance Challenges in Global Health. N Engl J Med; 368:936-942. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1109339 Grainger C, Gorter A, Okal J, Bellows B.(2014). Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review.Int J Equity Health. 13(1):33. 10.1186/1475-9276-13-33J, Henderson J.W. (2015). Health economics and policy. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd. Marston, C., Renedo, A., Mcgowan, C.R., Portela, A. (2013). Effects of Community Participation on Improving Uptake of Skilled Care for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Systematic Review. PlosONE, 8(2). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055012. Salam, R. A., Lassi, Z. S., Das, J. K., Bhutta, Z. A. (2014). Evidence from district level inputs to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health: interventions and findings.Reproductive Health,11(Suppl 2), S3. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4755-11-S2-S3 UNICEF (2013) Strategic Plan 2014-2017. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2013-16-Strategic_Plan_2014-2017-ODS-English.pdf White, F (2015). Primary Health Care and Public Health: Foundations of Universal Health Systems. Med Princ Pract. 24:103-116 https://doi.org/10.1159/000370197 World Health Organization (2014)Preventive chemotherapy: planning, requesting medicines, and reporting.Wkly Epidemiol Rec89: 6171

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Laser Tattoo Removal Essay Example

Laser Tattoo Removal Paper My audience will understand the history of tattoo removal as well as how modern day laser tattoo removal works and the best candidate for laser tattoo removal. Topic: Strategy: Explanation. Narrowed: (1) History of tattoo removal; (2) How laser tattoo removal works; (3) Laser tattoo removal results Ethos: Primary: I am an Aesthetician and work for Dr. Mark Taylor. Tattoo removal is one of the most common laser treatments we perform on a daily basis at the Gateway Aesthetic Institute.Secondary: I cite multiple references plus photos and a video of the procedure being done (if time allows). Audience Assessment: A selection of my audience most likely has had a tattoo or known someone with a tattoo that they no longer want. I will further educate my audience on the tattoo removal process and who the best candidate for the procedure is. Adaptation to Audience: Many audience members either have tattoos or have considered getting a tattoo, but what they aren’t aware of is the process of getting a tattoo removed.I will be using pictures as well as information from the dermatologist I work with to educate the audience of what they can expect from the tattoo removal process. Opening Strategy (hook): Informative Key Word Outline: Laser Tattoo Removal Introduction Hook:It may have seemed like a good idea initially, but years, months or even maybe only a few hours later the regret is settling in and you are asking yourself â€Å"what was I thinking, getting a tattoo? † Maybe it’s he placement you are unhappy with, or possible the color or image, whatever it may be causing you to rethink your â€Å"brilliant† idea, you aren’t alone. According to WebMD it is estimated that close to 10% of the U. S. population has some sort of tattoo, and eventually as many as 50% of them want it removed. Lucky for that 50% of people, with the new laser tattoo removal techniques, doctors are able to help people of all ages rid themselves of something that the y no longer want on their bodies. I will now explain the history, process and side effects and results of laser tattoo removal.Thesis: Most of us know the process of getting a tattoo, but what we aren’t as familiar with is the process of getting a tattoo removed. I will explain the history, process and side effects and results of laser tattoo removal. Preview: †¢ How tattoos were removed before laser tattoo removal was invented †¢ How does laser tattoo removal work †¢ What are the side effects and results of tattoo removal Transition: To explore the long history of tattoo removal, I spoke with dermatologist Dr. Mark Taylor at the Gateway Aesthetic Institute. Body: I.Dr. Mark Taylor says that tattoo removal dates back to ancient Egyptian times; however in modern society, up until the last decade, tattoo removal was often painful and left unsightly scarring. A. The following tattoo removal processes took place before laser tattoo removal came around. 1. Cutting o ut the skin containing the tattoo ink- which sometimes is still done if the tattoo can not be treated with the laser. 2. Dermabrasion Salabrasion- sanding/sanding salting of the skin- Historically this is the most common way to remove a tattoo.The idea being to traumatize the skin and then applying irritants to draw out the tattoo ink. A rapidly spinning diamond fraise wheel or a wire brush 3. Laser vaporization-burning out the skin 4. Chemical peels B. Side affects of tattoo removal without a laser 1. Dermabrasion has a high risk of scarring and loss of normal skin pigment- Severely painful 2. Risk of infection 3. All methods are very painful Transition: Now let’s explore laser tattoo removal. Laser tattoo removal was initially performed with continuous wave length when it was first released on the market.It was then switched to a Q-Switched Laser (what is currently used), which became available in the 90’s. II. How does the laser actually remove tattoos A. The web site howstuffworks. com summarizes how the laser tattoo removal process works in simple terms. The article describes that the laser works by producing short pulses of intense light that pass harmlessly through the top layers of the skin to be selectively absorbed by the tattoo pigment. 1. Laser Energy causes the tattoo pigment to fragment into smaller particles 2.The particles are later cleaned up by the body’s natural immune process 3. Only pigment from the tattoo is targeted with the laser- The skin surrounding the tattoo is unharmed 4. On average, most tattoos can be removed in 5-15 clinic visits B. Although it’s called tattoo removal, completely removing a tattoo can be difficult. If you’ve placed that sweet verse of poetry on your neck or chest in black or red ink, you’re in luck. But the itty-bitty tweedy-bird tattoo on your foot or wrist in certain shades of green, purple or blue will be much more stubborn. . Varies with the type of tattoo, the col or of the ink, the density of the pigment, the size and depth of the tattoo, and the body’s reaction to the treatment. 2. Black ink is typically the easiest color to treat. Multi-colored tattoos, especially those with yellow and other unusual colors may be difficult to completely remove 3. Tattoos closer to the heart with increased blood supply, respond more quickly to treatment 4. If you are on the fence about saying so long to your ex-wives name on your shoulder blade, it may benefit you to wait a little longer.According to dermatologist Dr. Will Kirby and also guest star on LA Ink says, older tattoo’s are easier to remove than brand-new ones. â€Å"Some people get a tattoo at 10 in the morning and they want it removed by 11, but you’ve got to wait at least six weeks before your first laser treatment. † Transition: Now that we are familiar with how laser tattoo removal works, let’s discuss the million dollar question, â€Å"does it hurt†, as well as the pos-treatment considerations. III. Does laser tattoo removal hurt? A. According to Dr. Mark Taylor, the impact of the energy from the laser’s owerful pulse of light has been described as similar to getting hot specks of bacon greased on your skin or being snapped by a thin rubber band. The rapid pulses generated from the laser may feel different to each patient. â€Å"The unfortunate thing about tattoos is that both getting them and having them taken off can be uncomfortable. † B. To further decrease the pain, the physicians recommend one of the following options: 1. Topical anesthetic cream applied to the area an hour before treatment 2. Local anesthetic injected into the tattoo prior to treatmentC. What happens after laser removal is performed 1. Immediately following treatment, the tattoo will have a whitish appearance, develop some swelling, blistering, and may have pinpoint bleeding 2. Antibiotic ointment and a bandage are applied 3. The treated are a will take about two weeks to heal and will begin to fade 4. You can look forward getting the painful procedure done again in 4-8 weeks D. Typically the only real side effect’s to laser tattoo removal is incomplete removal of the tattoo as well as the high expense of the treatment Conclusion:You may now be asking yourself is getting a tattoo worth the money and hassle? It’s really up to you. Some people really enjoy their tattoos and keep them for life, whereas others might regret that they acted on impulse and didn’t think enough about it before they got one. Now you that you have an understanding of the tattoo removal process you may be able to make a more thought out decision, or in the case of you already having a tattoo you now know what goes in to getting it off! References: â€Å"Laser Tattoo Removal. † WebMD. 12 June 2012.

Monday, March 9, 2020

History Essays

History Essays History Essay History Essay During the winter of 1692, in the small village of Salem, Massachusetts, something terrible happened. Salem Massachusetts became the center of a horrible tragedy, which changed the life of many people. It was a time of fear, because of bad crops, Indian raids, and diseases. The people of Salem Village had to blame something, or someone. The people of Salem Village accused people, and called them witches. They were accused of all those terrible things and more. Salem Village was a small, farming community with a population of 550. It was smaller than Salem Town, and about eight miles away. Salem Town was a large port, and was a prosperous fishing community The two towns had the same minister, and used the same church as the people in Salem Village. At that time there was two groups in the village. Those who wanted to be separate from Salem Town, and those who did not. Samuel Parris was the minister of the group that did want to be separate. He helped divide the groups even more by his sermons. He called the group that did not want to separate, evil and bad, and the group that did, good and righteous. Compare with the dynasty of Qing, people was had no cerebration to share money ith strangers so that the problem of extreme disparity between the rich and the poor was very serious and it bought out many refugees indirectly. To the political factors, China has been increased the commercial potential with foreign base on the industry development under the Peoples Livelihood and this make China become more internationalization. The other philosophy of Three Peoples Principle is Democracy. Democracy means strive for the political power of people. Before 1911, China interior government was full of corruptions and the office holders were misuse heir power to hector people. Confront these reasons, people live perplexity because of office holders savage acts and the high taxation. To modify this situation, Sun Yixian address a country abundant or not is base on people. People should have a power to interference government and also partake with governments decision through an election. Sun Yixian hope that everyone is equal under his dominion. In front of this conversion, the relations between government and people has been changed. Governments work position is not depends on authority anymore, everyone an enter the different Jobs of government with their own competence in the civil servant examination system. With the proceed of Democracy, people finally own the right to speak and the efficiency of administrations interior operate was increased substantially. For the last cerebration of Three Peoples Principle is Nationalism which the creation of a strong Chinese state. Nationalism is a way to united different races of China and it also mind to strive for every races are equality. Racial discrimination is familiar nowadays and it always call injured within the argue etween different nations. The problem of extreme disparity between the rich and the poor is not only being in a society, it may also being in a country Just like China. Power and money decided each races value and bought out resentful. Base on Sun Yixians theory, this action is violate the framework of equal. To reform the relation between race and race, Sun Yixian suppose use morality and peaceful to be a groundwork and there are no distinction whatever what race you are. To the smaller nation, we have to help them and support them in every way so that they may ecome more formidable. A united country is a key point to resist enemy and develop society vigorously. For this superiority, foreign will not try to start a war with China easily. To sum up the political situation between 1911 and 1924 which has changed by Sun Yixians theory Three Peoples Principle, China has been more powerful and its station of world has been totally increased. After that, Foreign treat China as ones equal since China became industrialization and started has business connections with China. In the other side, the peoples livelihood of China interior was all receive a good quality and the administration is more upright. To contrast with the period which Sun Yixian was not yet appeared in the political world, China was full of internal revolt and foreign invasion and it is very unstable. For the interior of China, people start uprising always and try to push over Qing government such as Wuchang Uprising and Second Guangzhou Uprising because of they cannot accept the eunuchs monopoly of power intensely. Sun Yixian end up Qings tyrannical system and created a new system which is to hand state power back to the people. He also promoted the freedom of the capitalist system successfully. Through by his theory carry, Chinas political affairs become flourishing and more modern. China is not Just a country which a hole in the wall anymore, China has been solely responsible for one section. Base on these reasons, Sun Yixian has became an important politician affecting the development of China between 1911 and 1924 and bring China toa new page. History Essays History Essay History Essay Chapter 1: The Foundations of Complex SocietiesAbraham Neolithic era Moses Paleolithic era Saul cuneiform David Sargon of Akkad Solomon Mesopotamia King Cyrus the Great Homo sapiens Muhammad Gilgamesh Assyrians Nebuchadnezzar Babylonians Allah YahwehThe Boarder Influence of Mesopotamian Society Metallurgical innovations ranked among the most important developments that came about because of ______________________. About 3500 BCE experimentation with ____________ Metallurgy led to the invention of _______________ when Mesopotamian metalworkers learned to alloy _____________ with tin. Unlike pure copper, _____________ is both hard and strong, and it quickly became the preferred metal for military weaponry as craftsmen turned out swards, spears, axes, shields, and armor made of the recently invented metal. The Best known cases of early Mesopotamian influence involved Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews, who preserved memories of their historical experiences in an extensive collection of ______________________. Israelites formed a branch of Hebrews who settled in Palestine (modern day Israel) after 1300 B.C.E, these early _____________________ who inhabited lands between Mesopotamia and Egypt during the second millennium B.C.E. _______________ descended from the southern Israelites who inhabited the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew scriptures (_______________________________), the Hebrews patriarch ________________ came from the Sumerian city of Ur, but he migrated to northern Mesopotamia about 1850 BCE. About 1300 BCE, this branch of the Hebrews departed under the leadership of ____________ and returned to ___________________. Organized into a loose federation of twelve _____________, those Hebrew, known as _______________, fought bitterly with other inhabitants of Palestine and carved out a territory for themselves. Eventually they would abandon their inherited tribal structure in favor of

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Racism in the United States in the Context of Freedom of Expression Essay

Racism in the United States in the Context of Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Association - Essay Example Some of these people have made racist associations strong and thereby passing extremist messages (Bleich 81). These people act the way they do, in some cases, a bid to overcome dilemmas just like Allen presents in Where I come from Is Like This, â€Å"Most Indian women I know are in the same bicultural bind†¦ We resolve the dilemma in various ways†¦ We act in these destructive ways because we suffer from the societal conflicts caused by having to identify with two hopelessly opposed cultural definitions of women† (Allen 45). When individuals are denied the chance of organizing themselves into groups, they will have a difficult time presenting their views or opinions in a democratic society. Majority of the people in the United States and other nations such as Western Europe do not value freedom of association. This is because they join private clubs, bowling leagues, and political parties without any reason. They have become accustomed to the associations such that l imiting or denying any group from organizing to further their interests is considered to be limiting their desires to promote a vibrant political sphere and civil society (Bleich 85). This is evident in Paula Gunn Allen’s article Where I Come From Is Like This. Allen states that members of her community resolve issues and dilemmas in many ways; partying all the time, drinking in excess, and engaging in violent exchanges (Adams 203). This indicates the way the people have become accustomed to associations that link them on a common agenda. Countries measure freedom of association against racism in a number of ways. Racists’ autonomy in the United States has been aggressively protected. Groups or associations such as the Ku Klux Klan, racist skinhead crew, anti-Semitic black separatist groups, and small neo-Nazi parties function legally and openly in the United States. Southern Poverty Law Center in Alabama has tracked these groups, and associations for years and it stat es that there were 900 of them in 2008, indicating an increase in 200 active hate groups since 2000. The modern interpretation of Constitution in the United States has made the freedom of association a fundamental right thus making it nearly difficult to outlaw a group on the basis of its racist characteristics (Bleich 86). Protection of the racist groups in the United States can be equated to Harlem in the James Baldwin’s Sonny’s Blues. The Harlem community is faced with numerous problems such as poverty, frustration, and drugs. However, the community members come together to protect and watch over one another. The adults use most of their time in the afternoon sharing stories and offering their children a sense of protection and warmth. The â€Å"music becomes the means for the brother’s reconciliation and functions as an â€Å"art of communion† which extends the meaning of each individual’s ‘blues’ (i.e., sorrow) to become a metaph or for the African American community in general† (Recker 30). The brothers and the community watch and protect one another despite the problems facing them. Outlawing such an association can be very difficult because of the protection developed among them. Thus, it is the mandate of the United States to show brotherly love to the racist associations as indicated in